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cuba history .org - History of Cuban Nation


In 1902 Cuba theoretically obtained the independence, although of facto it continues existing an economic dependence and even politics with regard to USA.

Tomás Estrada Palma

May 20, 1902 Tomás Estrada Palma assumes the presidency of the Republic of Cuba’s government, becoming into the first president of a republic that is born castrated.

This date United States granted Cuba the independence, but this last authorized the American government to intervene in any moment in the country, and it left established that the government of Cuba should lease the United States "the necessary lands for coal cellar or naval stations in certain points that will be suited with the president of United States" in accordance with the amendment Platt, which was included in the first constitutional text of Cuba theoretically independent.

In 1934 the amendment was abolished and United States and Cuba reaffirmed the agreement of 1903, according to which was leased the Guantanamo naval base to United States goverment.

In 1906 there is a rising of the liberals in the "war of August" against Tomás Estrada Palma's reelection, that which will give cause to a new intervention of USA in the island. The president of USA, Roosevelt designates Charles Magoon like Governor of Cuba.

José Miguel Gómez

In the elections of 1909 José Miguel Gómez assumes the presidency who was accused of corruption.

In 1912 the rising of the Independent group of Color takes place protesting against the racial discrimination; this rising would be repressed again with the help of the American army.

In 1913 Mario García Menocal is elected president, being reelected in 1917. During his command he got the support of the oligarchy landowner for his politics of investments in the plantations of rice and of sugar cane, but he also carried out a repression against the liberal insurrection of Chambelona and some labor risings.

In his government's last stage the influence of USA was even bigger and many of his government measures were imposed by decree.

Gerardo Machado

In 1925 Gerardo Machado comes to power and he starts with a repressive politics against the opponents and the union movements. Due to a lingering fight multi-partisan Machado was forced to take away from Cuba, and a provisional government was formulated.

But Fulgencio Batista, a sergeant of the army, organized a suboficiales revolt in September 4 of 1933, he suppressed resistance in a bloody way and he took control of the army to be able in power behind wings until he was elected president in 1940.

In 1940, Cuba had free and fair elections. Fulgencio Batista, endorsed by Communists, won the election. Communists attacked the anti-Batista opposition, saying that Ramón Grau and others were "fascists", "reactionaries", and "Trotskyists".

The 1940 Constitution, which Julia E. Sweig describes as extraordinarily progressivist, was adopted by Batista administration.

Batista was voted out of office in 1944 elections.

Fulgencio Batista

In 1944 he was not reelected, and in 1948 he was not postulated as candidate. Both elections won them political civil figures Grau San Martin and Carlos Prio Socarras that they had the support of the partisan organizations.

In 1952, when he ran in the presidential elections again, Batista took the power in a coup d'etat, three months before the elections. Also, he adjourned the election and he began to govern for decree. Many figures and movements who wanted a turn to the government under the Constitution of 1940, disputed the non democratic authority of Batista.

In the armed struggle against the tyranny of Fulgencio Batista very soon stood out the leadership of Fidel Castro Ruz, a lawyer youth of hardly 25 year-old who was among the first ones that condemned the vandal coup d'etat of March 10. His eloquent verb spoke up in proclamation to denounce the unconstitutional government imposed by arms.

In the Urgency Court of Havana, March 24 of 1952, Fidel Castro got a cause against Fulgencio Batista out for the sedition, betrayal, rebellion and night attack crimes. The constitutional guarantees were suspended in the country and the tribunal ignored the accusation against the dictator.

The tense political situation created in Cuba explodes January 15 of 1953, when forces of the police shoot a student manifestation, and the university student Rubén Batista falls gravely wounded. After a month of long agony, February 13, Rubén dies. His burial, would mark the exact point of a tactical change in the revolutionary movement that Fidel heads.

Starting from that moment it gets ready secretly, to quick and firm step, the geste that would spark off a revolutionary process that would change the course of the Cuban history: The assault to the Moncada Barracks, the second military fortress of the country.