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cuba history .org - History of Cuban Nation

Migrations Toward Cuba B.C.E

The prehispanic first migration toward Cuba happened 8000 BCE from Gulf of Mexico and North America. Paleolithic hunters that came from Missisippi, Florida and Bahamas behind "giant lazy" Megalognus rodens, the manatee, the almiquí, the jutía and others.

The second migration dates of 4500 BCE from Center and South America, especially the territories that Mexico, Honduras and Venezuela occupy.

Guanajatabey Territory

They settled down in the south coast of Cuba (Marsh of Zapata, Isla de Pino and Guanahacabibes). Platform fishermen and coast pickers. They used knives, firing-pin, mortars with shells, picks, etc. They were in the Matriarchy and they buried to their deads.

The third migration was 500 BCE from Florida and the valley of Missisippi. They settled in Matanzas and they extended for that area of the north coast.

The fourth migration was in the VI Century BCE from Antilles and they were located fundamentally in the Orient of Cuba, around the current Banes town. They introduced the corn, the yucca, the tobacco and many utensils of the agro-potter economy. They possessed rituals and they had a social organization.

The fifth migration is carried out in the first half of the XV century BCE. They used the same migratory route that their predecessors and they settled essentially in Mayarí.

Tainos Aboriginal Migrations

According to the Father de las Casas, they were the taínos, the previous ones were the siboneyes and the oldest residents in the island were the guanajatabeyes.

It’s still in discussion if Siboney went previous to Guanajatabey or if this preceded it in its arrival to Cuba. The remains of Guanajatabey were discovered by the Engineer José A. Cosculluela in the mound of Guayabo Blanco in the Ciénaga de Zapata, at the end of 1913. It belonged to the period or culture of the shell; its characteristic device was the gouge, its skull without deforming, big with 1382 c.c. of capacity, Lipsi-Subbraquicéfalo.

It has been named by the experts of the Group Guamá, "Man of Cosculluela." He lived in the whole island, but in the moment of the discovery it had shrunk notably and he had taken refuge in the western part of Cuba, current county of Pinar del Río and in some keys in the south coast of the island. It is not known exactly its origin.

In time, "Siboney", the true Cuban continued it. It belonged a second period or culture of the stone. Its characteristic instruments were the gouge, ball and dagger. Its typical places were: Pico Tuerto del Naranjal, Redondo Key and Soroa. Its small skull without deforming, 1165 c.c., Meso-subbrachycephalic has been denominated Man of Montané.

Siboney inhabited the whole island and when it happens the discovery it had been subjugated for Taíno that was the last and advanced of the natives. It belonged to the third period or culture of mud or pottery; their characteristic instruments were the axes and the vessels of mud.

The typical places they used: Baracoa, Banes, Moron and Cienfuegos. Its skull had oblique tubular deformation, and an average of 1435 c.c. of cranial capacity (according to Drill the half capacity of the skull of the Germanic race in the XIX century was of 1534 c.c., black race 1371 and the Australian race 1228). Siboney was of Araucos origin coming from South America, their languages were very similar with similar root.